Check out this fascinating 10 minute segment of a longer piece by Ralph Steiner featuring classic mechanical movements. Many of these mechanisms can be found in the book 507 Mechanical Movements as well as the larger, but similar 1800 Mechanical Movements, Devices and Appliances.
Some interesting movements shown in the film include:
• Counter mechanism
• Gears engage on diagonals
• Square gears
• Variable speed transfer
• Rotary to linear action with a 4 tooth cog
Here is a page on Amazon listing lots of great books on mechanical movements. Also known as "the list of awesome".